20 July/August 2012 http://www.wellbeingjournal.com Well Being Journal
Ketogenic diets are those in which fats provide most
of the calories. Carbohydrates (sugars and starches)
are severely limited, and protein intake is moderate. The
term ketogenic refers to the fact that when the body metabolizes
fat for fuel, ketone bodies are created through
ketogenesis. Ketone bodies are fragments of fatty acids
created when your liver and kidney cells metabolize fats.
Your cells can use ketones for fuel, and if fat burning is
increased, it results in ketosis, which is an elevated level
of ketones in the bloodstream.
Ketogenic diets are powerful, metabolically speaking.
Switching to a high-fat, low-carbohydrates ketogenic
diet can eliminate heartburn,1,2 improve cardiac risk factors3,4,52
and reverse the elevated blood pressure, high
blood sugar, and dyslipidemia associated with metabolic
In addition, other research has shown that the metabolic
effects of eating more fats and less carbohydrates can
alleviate many serious health issues. Medical researchers
and some physicians are using ketogenic diets to reduce
the tremors of Parkinson’s disease and help Alzheimer’s
patients regain memory and thought function,8-11 drive
various cancers into remission,12-16 give diabetics better
control over their blood sugar and lipid profiles,17,18
and improve epilepsy treatment outcomes.19,20
How can a simple diet have so much power? The
secret is in the effect that eating ketogenically has on
blood sugar, insulin, and ultimately, cellular energy
the Ketogenic Diet So Effective?
The effectiveness of the ketogenic diet
starts with the metabolic effects of ketosis
and the influence it has on the trillions of cells in our
bodies. Most of our cells contain mitochondria, which act
as the power plants of the cell. These little organelles are
responsible for generating cellular energy, and when they
are healthy and running efficiently, well-being is greatly
enhanced. In fact, mitochondrial health is an important
factor in the pathology of diabetes and obesity,21-23 brain
function,24 and aging.25
Dysfunctional mitochondria result in disease, whereas
robust mitochondria produce healthy bodies. And the
food we eat has a direct consequence on mitochondrial
power and productivity.
Inflammation and the Role of
Excess Carbohydrates and Sugars
Aerobic cellular respiration is an intense metabolic process
in which the mitochondria transform food nutrients
into a cellular energy called ATP (adenosine triphosphate).
As with any aerobic energy process in the human
body, oxygen is involved,
Ketogenic Diets: A Key to
By Ellen Davis
Well Being Journal http://www.wellbeingjournal.com July/August 2012 21
The food we eat is comprised of
three major macronutrients. We
know them as fats, proteins, and
Fats include monounsaturated
oils such as olive oil, polyunsaturated
oils such as sunflower oil, and
saturated fats such as butter and
coconut oil, which are solid at room
temperature. Contrary to mainstream
advice, saturated fats are
the healthiest fats because they
are the most chemically stable, and
don’t oxidize easily. Monounsaturated
oils are the next healthiest,
and polyunsaturated oils, which are
highly reactive and chemically unstable,
should be avoided as much
Proteins are important foods, as
we need them to repair our body
tissues, provide protection against
bacteria and viruses, make important
hormones and enzymes
needed for biological processes,
and maintain muscle mass. Protein
is found in meat, poultry, fish, dairy
products, nuts, and beans and in
smaller quantities in vegetables.
Carbohydrate is found in large
quantities in most of the processed
foods you’ll find on the grocery
store shelves. Carbohydrates, however,
are not essential nutrients,
and you can get all the glucose you
need from green vegetables and
protein. And food that isn’t high in
fat or protein will usually be high
in carbohydrates. This includes
breads, crackers, pasta, cookies,
cake, sugars, juice, and starchy
vegetables such as corn, beans,
and potatoes. Grains including rice,
wheat, and oatmeal also contain
carbohydrates. And there isn’t
much difference between a whole
grain complex carbohydrate and
a simple carbohydrate like sugar.
They both get turned into excess
glucose in your body. —E.D.
this increases the likelihood of oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is what causes
metal to rust, and cooking oils to go rancid when exposed to the air.
In the body, oxidative stress can create molecules called reactive oxygen species,
or ROS. These molecules, commonly called free radicals, are chemically
reactive and can damage internal cellular structures.
Small amounts of ROS are created as part of normal cellular respiration, and
our cells have been equipped with various antioxidant molecules to disarm
them. So far, so good.
But if inflammation is present, excessive amounts of ROS are created and
overwhelm the cell’s defenses, causing accelerated damage and eventually
cell death. This is why inflammation is linked with so many types of disease
Here is where our food choices become
very important. Eating foods that are high in
carbohydrates leads to increased ROS and inflammation26-
29 because these foods increase
the amount of glucose and insulin in the
bloodstream. This is the main problem with
high-carbohydrate diets. While glucose is an
important fuel for the body, too much of it
circulating in the bloodstream can harm body
systems. How much is too much? Typically,
a healthy individual will have less than one
teaspoon of sugar dissolved in the bloodstream
at any one time.30
Compare that to a typical canned soft
drink, which contains about ten teaspoons
of sugar, or a bagel, which breaks down into
about sixteen teaspoons of sugar in the bloodstream. These high-carbohydrate
foods provide much more glucose than the human body can handle efficiently.
Blood glucose is basically liquid sugar, and if you have ever spilled fruit
juice or syrup on your hands, you know how sticky it can be. In the body, this
“stickiness” is called glycation.
Glycation is a process in which excess blood sugar sticks to and damages the
proteins of body tissues. These injured proteins stop functioning correctly, and
this results in a chain of events that increases inflammation and creates substances
called advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). Advanced glycation
end-products interfere with cellular function, and are linked to the progression
of many disease processes, including Alzheimer’s,31 cardiovascular disease32,33
stroke,34 and autism.35
Eating a steady diet of foods that drive up your blood sugar increases glycation
damage and inflammation, because the extent of glycation damage is
directly linked to glucose and insulin concentrations in the bloodstream.36,37
The higher the blood sugar, the more serious the damage. Glycation damage is
why diabetics with chronically high blood sugar experience neuropathy, higher
rates of cancer and heart disease, kidney damage,38 and blindness.39 You want to
minimize glycation damage and the resulting inflammation as much as possible
for good health.
Ron Rosedale, M.D., writes about the glycation damage that a high-carbohydrate
diet and excess blood sugar can do. He sums this up in one comment:
“Health and lifespan are determined by the proportion of fat versus sugar
people burn throughout their lifetime. The more fat that one burns as fuel, the
healthier the person will be, and the more likely they will live a long time. The
more sugar a person burns, the more disease ridden and the shorter a lifespan a
person is likely to have.”40
People who eat
a high-fat, lowcarbohydrate
diet have lots
of energy, and
it stays steady
22 July/August 2012 http://www.wellbeingjournal.com Well Being Journal
Most ADA-trained dietitians will tell
you that carbohydrates are essential
to good health because the
brain can only use carbohydrategenerated
glucose for fuel. The
logic goes that since the brain can
only use glucose for fuel, you must
eat carbohydrates or the body will
break down your muscles to get the
glucose it needs for the brain.
This is incorrect. As Jeff Volek
and Stephen Phinney explain in The
Art and Science of Low Carbohydrate
Living, “The human brain is
a carbohydrate dependent organ
only if one routinely eats a lot of
anti-ketogenic nutrients such as
sugars and concentrated carbohydrates.
When dietary carbohydrates
are held to 50 grams or less per
day, humans undergo a process
called keto-adaptation…. After a
few weeks of the keto-adaptation
process, serum ketones increase
several fold, reaching 1-3 millimolar
“Above 1 mM ketones, more than
half the brain’s fuel comes from
ketones. The rest of the brain’s fuel
must indeed come from glucose,
but this amount is easily produced
endogenously…via a process called
In other words, for most people
50 grams or less per day of carbohydrates
allows the brain and
heart to burn ketones for fuel. This
is not written in stone. The less
insulin resistant you are, the more
carbohydrates you can eat. Some
people can consume as many as
150 grams of carbohydrates a day
and still efficiently use ketones for
fuel. Ketogenic diets of short duration
show little benefit. Our bodies
require time to build the enzymes
needed to burn fat efficiently and
the Key to Ketogenic
In contrast to the inflammatory actions of glucose and glycation, the presence
of fat-derived ketones in the mitochondria actually inhibits ROS production,
41-47 and provides a sort of defense for the ravages of cellular respiration.
Because of the metabolic path they take in the mitochondria,47 ketones enhance
mitochondrial efficiency and reduce oxidative stress. In other words, ketones
promote mitochondrial health.
And here is another benefit of ketosis: breaking down fat for fuel also provides
a greater amount of ATP energy.48 When cellular mitochondria use fatty
acids to create energy, they can create more than three times the amount of
ATP than they can using glucose. So not only is ROS production reduced, more
cellular energy is made, and that means more energy overall. People who eat a
high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet have lots of energy, and it stays steady throughout
As you can see, using carbohydrates
for body fuel is just not efficient.
The presence of high amounts
of glucose increases glycation and
inflammation, ramps up oxidative
stress and ROS damage, and creates
less energy for cellular and body
Given that excess glucose can
be toxic, and ketones are so beneficial,
it makes sense to consider
the idea that ketosis is the preferred
nutritional state of the human body.
Muscles use fatty acids constantly,
and research has shown that the
heart and brain utilize ketones as a
fuel source to a greater extent when carbohydrate intake is minimized.49-51
When your diet is higher in fat and lower in carbohydrates, all body systems
work as they were designed to, and inflammation is reduced.52 This is why
a ketogenic diet has such a positive effect on health markers associated with
metabolic syndrome5-7 and on more serious disease states such as neurological
impairment,9,10 cardiovascular disease,3,4,52 cancer,12-16 diabetes,17,18 and epilepsy.
This is not to say all carbohydrate-containing foods should be avoided. There
are certain cells in the body that can only use glucose for fuel, so we must have
some glucose in the bloodstream. The idea is to avoid having too much glucose
circulating by minimizing your consumption of concentrated carbohydrates.
Fats, protein, and green leafy vegetables are better choices as these foods can
provide the minimal glucose needed without causing glycation damage.
In summary, healthy natural unprocessed fats are good for you, and ketogenic
diets can have a profound and positive effect on a multitude of health markers,
53 as they provide an excellent tool for regaining and maintaining health and
well-being, right down to the cellular level. Δ
Ellen Davis is the creator and owner of http://www.ketogenic-diet-resource.com, a website
devoted to sharing information on the health benefits of ketogenic diets. She is an avid
supporter of ketogenic diets in all forms, and attributes her devotion to personal experience.
She reversed her symptoms of metabolic syndrome, regained excellent health,
and lost over 80 pounds by switching from the standard American diet to a whole
foods ketogenic diet. She also created http://www.healthy-eating-politics.com, a website
that presents information about the health benefits of whole, nutrient dense foods, and
helps dismantle the myth that saturated fat and cholesterol are at the root of heart disease.
Ellen lives in Cheyenne, Wyoming, and can be reached via email at ellen.davis.
When your diet is
higher in fat and lower
in carbohydrates, all
body systems work as
they were designed to,
and inflammation is
Well Being Journal http://www.wellbeingjournal.com July/August 2012 23
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Potassium works with an enzyme that is used
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